Supplies for making your own fermented drinks and foods. Equipment includes fermenting jars complete with airlocks, home brew kits and bottles and h....
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Supplies for making your own fermented drinks and foods. Equipment includes fermenting jars complete with airlocks, home brew kits and bottles and home winemaking supplies.
Natural fermentation precedes human history. Since ancient times, humans have exploited the fermentation process. The earliest evidence of an alcoholic drink, made from fruit, rice, and honey, dates from 7000 to 6600 BC, in the Neolithic Chinese village of Jiahu, and winemaking dates from 6000 BC, in Georgia, in the Caucasusarea. Seven-thousand-year-old jars containing the remains of wine, now on display at the University of Pennsylvania, were excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. There is strong evidence that people were fermenting alcoholic drinks in Babylon c. 3000 BC, ancient Egypt c. 3150 BC, pre-Hispanic Mexico c. 2000 BC, and Sudan c. 1500 BC.
The French chemist Louis Pasteur founded zymology, when in 1856 he connected yeast to fermentation. When studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by
yeast, Pasteur concluded that the fermentation was catalyzed by a vital force, called "ferments", within the yeast cells. The "ferments" were thought to function only within living organisms. "Alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells", he wrote.
Nevertheless, it was known that yeast extracts can ferment sugar even in the absence of living yeast cells. While studying this process in 1897, Eduard Buchner of Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany, found that sugar was fermented even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture, by a yeast secreted enzyme complex that he termed zymase. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research and discovery of "cell-free fermentation".
NAD studies led to the early discovery of ethanol fermentation one year earlier, in 1906.